This lecture is part of the IICD & Probability and Society Initiative Joint Seminar Series, mini-series on Evolutionary processes and patterns of biodiversity.
In this lecture, we explain how the genetic diversity of a sample of individuals can be characterized and scales with the size of the population where it is taken from, via the study of gene genealogies and Kingman's coalescent. Next, we display tools describing how genealogies of different genes are coupled by the effect of recombination. We apply these tools to a practical problem (how to infer past demography given a handful of genomes) and to a theoretical question (if ancestral genomes were all painted in distinct colors, how would the mosaic of colors on the genome look like in the long run?).